What Is Host File?

The hosts file in Windows is like an address book for your computer. It is loaded into memory (cache) when Windows starts and associates host names, such as with IP addresses, such as for Google. The IP address is like the telephone number for that site. However, so we don’t have to remember a string of numbers for every site we want to visit, we enter easy-to-remember host names.

Because the computer uses IP addresses to find sites, it needs to translate the host name for a site into an IP address. If the IP address for a site is in your hosts file associated with a host name, your computer can use that to “call” the site when you enter the host name in your browser’s address bar. If not, your computer must contact a DNS (domain name server) computer on the Internet for the IP address before it can contact the site.

Initially, there are no host name/IP address associations in the hosts file. Examples of the format and layout of the IP addresses and host names are listed in the comments in the file.

If you add host names and their associated IP addresses into the hosts file for sites you visit often, access to those sites becomes faster. Your computer doesn’t have to query DNS servers on the Internet to get the IP addresses for those sites. If there are any sites that don’t have a domain name, you can enter the site’s IP address in your hosts file with a custom domain name which can serve as a “shortcut” to the site.

So how can you use a HOSTS file in Windows? Well, websites can collect various types of information about you as you surf the web. The hosts file can help block sites from tracking you, as well as block ads, banners, third-party cookies, and other annoying parts of web pages.

Each computer has a host address of its own, known as the “localhost” address. The IP address for localhost is This can be used to block sites serving ads or objectionable content by entering a site’s host name in the hosts file and associating it with the localhost IP address. That refers the host name to your own computer, which then thinks it found the site and displayed it already, even though that site was never actually contacted.


What Is Windows MAC Address

Do you need to figure out what your MAC address is? I’ll explain how to do that in this article!

So what do you need to do to get your MAC address? It’s pretty simple actually! Let’s start off with getting a PC MAC address:

  • Click on Start and then click Run. In the text box, type in CMD. Click OK.
  • In the DOS window (the black box), type in the following without the quotes: “ipconfig/all” and press Enter.

You’ll notice a lot of stuff that might not make sense! Basically, this command gives you all the information for any network card in your system including the wired (Ethernet) network adapter, bluetooth adapter, any virtual adapters and the wireless adapter. So you’ll have to look under the specific heading you need because each adapter will have it’s own MAC address.

The MAC address is usually the last item in the list for each adapter and it’s called Physical Address. You’ll see a set of pairs of numbers separated by colons, i.e. 09:F2:96:3E…etc. This is your MAC address for that particular adapter.

You can then use the MAC address in your router settings if you are setting up MAC address filtering, which allows you to specify only certain devices that can connect to your WiFi network. Note that every device connected to your network has a MAC address including smartphones, printers, etc.

OS X Mac Address

If you have an Apple computer like a Macbook or Mac Mini, you can get your Mac address following the steps below.

  • Open System Preferences and click on Network.
  • Click on the connection that you want the MAC address for and then click on theAdvanced button at the bottom right.
  • Then click on the Hardware tab and you’ll see MAC Address written right at the top.


Tips To Insert PDF File To Word Document

Recently, I had to take a few pages out of a PDF document and put them into a Word document that I needed to send to a client. In the process of doing so, I figured out a few ways that you can go about inserting a PDF document into a Word document and that’s what I’m going to explain here!

If you have ever used different versions of Microsoft Office, you probably have felt the pain of dealing with features being moved around or features being removed completely. Even though Microsoft doesn’t keep everything consistent between versions, the process of inserting a PDF file is pretty much the same. I’ll explain the process for the Mac version (2011), which is slightly different, and for several of the latest releases of Office for PC (2007, 2010, 2013).

One big issue with the whole process is inserting multiple page PDFs into a Word document. Inserting a single page is easy enough, but when your PDF has more than one page, Word fails miserably. Apparently, when you insert an object into Word it cannot span more than one page and that’s why when you try to insert a multi-page PDF file, it only shows the first page.

There are two ways you can go about fixing this: one is to convert the whole PDF into a Word document itself and then insert or the second way is to convert each page of the PDF into an image and then insert the images into your Word doc. Depending on your PDF, converting to Word usually messes up the original layout of the PDF. The best option is to convert to images, which I explain below.

Converting Multiple Page PDFs to JPG

Before we get into actually inserting files into a Word doc, let’s go over how to convert a multiple page PDF into image files, namely the JPG format. You can also save out to PNG or TIFF format, which could get you more crispness in the text. There are some free ways and some paid ways, so it depends on how often you do this and what software you already have.

Adobe Acrobat Full

If you have the full version of Adobe Acrobat, then you can simply do a Save As or Save As Other and choose TIFF, PNG or JPG as the file type for the output. Acrobat will automatically convert each page into a separate image file, which you can then insert into your Word doc. Pretty easy, but Adobe Acrobat costs a lot, so not an option for most people.


There is a program from TechSmith called SnagIt that lets you capture screenshots and screencasts of your desktop on a Windows PC or Mac. The Windows version also has a printer capture utility that lets you capture the print output from any other program. So you can print your PDF file to the SnagIt printer and it will convert each page into an image automatically. Unfortunately  the Mac version does not yet support this option.  SnagIt is $50, but it’s still a lot cheaper than Adobe Acrobat.

How To Shutdown And Restart Your Windows Computer Remotely?

Do you want to learn how to remotely shut down and restart your Windows computer? Well, you are at the right page. Windows command tool to perform remote shut down and restart a networked or local computer is very useful at times especially if you have many computers within your network or at home and you want to restart or shut them down quickly.

You can also shut down a PC remotely over your internet, but first, you need to have VPN to your target PC or the network that you wish to shutdown. VPNs will not be covered on this article, but in case that’s the thing you wish to do then you can easily search it from Google.

Remote shutdown can be done with the use of Windows shutdown command tool together with some related switches coming from the batch files or from the dialog box of your remote shutdown command.

Remote Shutdown

For you to get started with the procedure, you first need to perform several steps before you can get “Access Denied” message in front of your desktop. To start with, simply follow the steps below:

  • Make sure that you have the Administrative Access for your target computer. In case you are using a home network, making sure that all PCs are working in one workgroup is the best way you can get the Administrative access. Make sure also that all the computers have only single Administrator account, one username and a password.
  • Turn on the “File and Printer Sharing” option and enable it through your Windows firewall. For you to do this, simply proceed to your “Control Panel” menu; then click the “Network and Sharing Center.” Now hit the link for “Change advanced sharing settings” from your left menus and choose the radio key to “Turn on network discovery” then “Turn on file and printer sharing”. You can now go to the “Control Panel” and click the Windows Firewall. From the left side menu, click “Allow a program or feature through Windows Firewall” option. Just see to it that you mark the check box for “Home/Work (Private)” option alone and not the “Public” box.

Windows Upgrade For Novice

Lots has been said about Windows – but it seems like everyone wants to talk about all the fancy little features that you’d hardly ever use.

If you’re wondering whether you should splash out on upgrading to Windows there are a few questions to ask yourself first. Going through these will make it much easier to decide whether it’s worth it for you.

What specification PC do you have?

To run Windows you need at least:

1) A reasonably modern processor (at least 800MHz) – but I’d recommend at least 1.2GHz* to be honest.

2) 512MB of memory (RAM)
3) A graphics processor that can run DirectX 9 That’ll run Vista Basic.

To run the more advanced features in Vista Premium, you need to have at least a 1GHz processor (I’d recommend at least 1.5GHz), 1GB of RAM and 128MB of memory specifically for graphics.

To be sure your PC can run Windows update, you should can download a little program from Microsoft’s website to check. Even if it says you can, I wouldn’t recommend it unless your PC is a bit better than the absolute minimum I’ve listed above.

What do you use your PC for?

If you only use your PC for sending emails, browsing the Internet, and occasionally using a word processor or spreadsheet and if you’re happy with Windows XP (or 98 or whatever version you have) then you may well be better off not changing. It would only mean learning all the bits that are different.

Don’t feel you have to upgrade just because everyone’s talking about it!

Do you work with other people who use it?

If you work freelance and the people you work with will be upgrading then you might want to upgrade so you’re using the same system.

Are you likely to buy a new PC soon?

If you are then there’s probably not too much point in getting Windows now. Instead you could wait until you’re ready to buy a new PC and get one with Windows upgrade already on it – saves you the cost and effort of installing it yourself.

Would you feel comfortable doing the installation?

It’s not especially hard to install Windows but if you’re nervous about installing software then you might want to get someone else to do it for you.

What programs do you use?

Some older programs may not run properly on Windows. You can check with the supplier whether it should work or if there’s an updated version (and whether you have to pay extra for it). If you don’t use the program much you may be able to get around it by using an alternative. But if it’s crucial to what you do, you might want to wait until there’s a Windows Vista compatible version.